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Horticulture Research Guide

Citing Resources

Use the style guides and resources listed below to help you cite your sources appropriately.

Citation management tools are also listed, for keeping track of your sources and completed citations.

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Citation Management Tools

Style Guides



Chicago (Turabian)

Multimedia Citations

Citing Images

See the PDF below for guidance on citing images and photographs in APA, MLA, and Chicago styles.

Citing Video

See the PDFs below for guidance on citing videos in APA, MLA, and Chicago style.

Citing Sound

See the PDFs below for guidance on citing sound in APA, MLA, and Chicago style.

Copyright Guidelines for Images

General Information

  • The counts have determined that it is within fair use to download thumbnail images from a website without asking permission or paying a licensing fee.
  • However, downloading full size images from a web site does not meet the fair use criteria.  Unless the site clearly states that it is permissible to download images for free, you must request permission and possibly pay a licensing fee to do so.

Fair Use Factors

The use of an image must meet the following criteria in order to be considered "fair use":

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work.
  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

See Also:

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