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Foundations of SQL

This guide serves as a SQL tutorial for beginners.


What is SQL? 

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a standard language for storing, manipulating   and retrieving data in databases. It was developed in the 1970s by IBM researchers Raymond Boyce and Donald Chamberlin. 

Why is it used? 

SQL is a domain-specific programming language used for managing and manipulating relational databases. SQL is designed to interact with databases by defining, querying, updating, and managing the data within them.  

Where is it used? 

SQL is a high-performance language used to communicate with databases. SQL is used in following.  

  • Data Analytics 

  • Healthcare 

  • Marketing 

  • Education 

  • Business Analytics 

  • Data Science 

  • Finance 

  • E-commerce 

  • Human resources 

  • Government and Public services 

You can learn more about SQL here

Getting Started

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a widely used query language to interact with relational database systems. It is used to create and define database structures and is much more than a query language. To run the SQL queries, we first need a database software called relational database management system and then we need a database management tool that allows you to run SQL queries against the RDBMS. There are many relational database systems available, such as: 

Microsoft SQL Server – Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system. As a database server that stores and retrieves data as requested by other software applications on the same computer or a remote computer using the client-server model. It is used for small to medium sized systems. 

MySQL – MySQL is one of the most popular and widely used open-source relational database management systems in modern app development. Unlike SQL, MySQL is a piece of software, not a language.  MySQL uses SQL as its query language, which allows users to define, manipulate, and retrieve data from the database using standardized syntax. It is owned by Oracle. 

SQLite – SQLite is an embedded, server-less relational database management system. It is an in-memory open-source library with zero configuration and does not require any installation. Also, it is very convenient as it is less than 500kb in size, which is significantly less than other database management systems. It operates as a library that applications can link to and use. 

PostgreSQL – PostgreSQL is a powerful, open-source object-relational database system that uses and extends the SQL language combined with many features that safely store and scale the most complicated data workloads. 

Oracle DB – Oracle Database, simply referred to as Oracle DB, is a widely used relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by the Oracle corporation. It is one of the most popular and powerful database systems in the world, known for its scalability, security, and reliability.  

Examples for the Database management tools are 

  • MySQL Workbench 

  • SQL Server Management Studio 

  • DBeaver 

  • Azure Data studio 

  • Various command-line interfaces, such as sqlcmd, sql-cli, mssql-cli, sqlite3, etc 

The SQL queries can be run even on applications and websites like 

SQLite GUI tools 

In our workshop we are using SQLite Relational Database Systems and for the Database management tools we are using Github codespaces. 

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