Information below is from Carnegie Mellon University's Scholarly Communications page at http://www.cmu.edu/scholarly-communications/public-access-mandates/ostp-directive-and-fastr.html
"OSTP Directive and FASTR
Mandated public access to publications and data
In February 2013, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued a Memorandum on Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research. The Memorandum, a.k.a. the OSTP Directive, directed federal agencies that fund more than $100 million in research to develop policies requiring public access and re‐use rights to peer‐reviewed publications and digital data arising from that funding. The Directive went into effect immediately. Draft policies must be available for review by September 2013. The effective dates of the policies can be no sooner than the publication date of the agency’s final plan. The Open Data Policy was issued in May 2013.
Also in February 2013, the Fair Use of Science and Technology Research Act [pdf] (FASTR) was introduced in both the House and the Senate with bipartisan support. FASTR requires federal agencies that fund more than $100 million in research to develop policies mandating public (open) access and re-use rights to peer-reviewed publications arising from that funding. FASTR must be passed into law to take effect.
The University Libraries prepared a table comparing the OSTP Directive and FASTR [pdf]."