What is dreaming, and what causes it? Why are dreams so strange and why are they so hard to remember? Replacing dream mystique with modern dream science, J. Allan Hobson provides a new and increasingly complete picture of how dreaming is created by the brain. Focusing on dreaming to explain the mechanisms of sleep, this book explores how the new science of dreaming is affecting theories in psychoanalysis, and how it is helping our understanding of the causes of mental illness. J. Allan Hobson investigates his own dreams to illustrate and explain some of the fascinating discoveries of modern sleep science, while challenging some of the traditionally accepted theories about the meaning of dreams. He reveals how dreaming maintains and develops the mind, why we go crazy in our dreams in order to avoid doing so when we are awake, and why sleep is not just good for health but essential for life.
InThe Dreaming Universeauthor Fred Alan Wolf examines the psychological and scientific elements of this most personal yet most enigmatic of human processes. By linking research ranging from the ancient Greek "dream temples" and modern experiments in telepathy, REM, and lucid dreaming to his own research on human consciousness, he theorizes that dreaming is the basis for consciousness, and that it is through dreaming that we are able to manifest a sense of ourselves.
According to the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research of the National Institutes of Health, 70 million American adults suffer from some kind of sleep disorder. Disorders such as sleep apnea have been linked to an increased likelihood of stroke, hypertension, or heart failure. It is now documented that sleep deprivation can facilitate mistakes or incidents at work; mood swings; an increased chance of obesity; and, drowsy driving, a serious condition often associated with traffic accidents and fatalities. In recent years the number of sleep disorder practitioners has grown substantially, and researchers have made breakthroughs in understanding sleep, why it's crucial to general health, and what disrupts it. ""The Encyclopedia of Sleep and Sleep Disorders, Third Edition"" examines the key terms, conditions, remedies, long-term health consequences, and advances that have been made in sleep health, sleep research, and sleep disorder diagnosis and treatment. This timely revised edition covers more than 80 sleep disorders in more than 800 entries and includes three informative essays - ""History of Sleep and Man"", ""Psychology of Sleep"", and ""Sociology of Sleep"", the latter of which is new to this edition. An all-new introduction, helpful appendixes, a bibliography, and an index complete this extensive encyclopedia. Topics covered in this title include: Accidents; Biological clock; Diet and sleep; Elderly and sleep; Infant sleep; Melatonin; Narcolepsy; Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Restless leg syndrome; Surgery and sleep disorders; and, more.
A deeply panoramic tour of the night, from its brightest spots to the darkest skies we have left. A starry night is one of nature's most magical wonders. Yet in our artificially lit world, three-quarters of Americans' eyes never switch to night vision and most of us no longer experience true darkness. In The End of Night, Paul Bogard restores our awareness of the spectacularly primal, wildly dark night sky and how it has influenced the human experience across everything from science to art. From Las Vegas' Luxor Beam -- the brightest single spot on this planet -- to nights so starlit the sky looks like snow, Bogard blends personal narrative, natural history, science, and history to shed light on the importance of darkness -- what we've lost, what we still have, and what we might regain -- and the simple ways we can reduce the brightness of our nights tonight.
Do you find yourself lying awake at night, ruminating about the events of the day? Do you toss and turn, worrying about what you have to do in the morning or what you did earlier in the day? If so, you are not alone. In fact, insomnia is the most common sleep disorder faced by the general population today. The most common complaint in those who have trouble sleeping is having a "noisy mind." Sometimes, no matter how hard you try, it seems like you cannot silence all the internal dialogue. So what do you do when your mind is spinning and your thoughts just won't stop? Accessible, enjoyable, and grounded in evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Goodnight Mind directly addresses the effects of rumination--or having an overactive brain--on your ability to sleep well. Written by two psychologists who specialize in sleep disorders, the book contains helpful exercises and insights into how you can better manage your thoughts at bedtime, and finally get some sleep. Traditional treatment for insomnia is usually focused on medications that promote sedation rather than on the behavioral causes of insomnia. Unfortunately, medication can often lead to addiction, and a host of other side effects. This is a great book for anyone who is looking for effective therapy to treat insomnia without the use of medication. This informative, small-format book is easy-to-read and lightweight, making it perfect for late-night reading.
Sensations of hunger, thirst, sexual attraction, and love can dominate our thoughts to the exclusion of almost everything else, but until the last 10 years or so, the precise reasons why these passions arise have not been understood very well. We now know that these, and other drives like the urge to sleep, are controlled by a small portion of the brain called the hypothalamus. This book presents the latest information about how the brain controls our most basic drives. In a series of fascinating anecdotes, Young tells the tale of how scientists have discovered the role of the hypothalamus in our basic drives and in medical conditions in which these drives are drastically altered. Covering our need for food, water, sex, sleep, and other life essentials, he reveals the brain's part in how we provide for each, and how in some cases, those needs can swing wildly out of control resulting in problems such as obesity, diabetes, insomnia, or narcolepsy. He shows how regulating body temperature can affect the lifespan, how the aging process affects sexual behavior, how empathy and love develop in relationships with family members or with love interests, and how all these functions and more can go awry. Like other science writers before him, Young illuminates even the complex inner workings of the brain in a way that anyone can understand, so that readers are treated to a tour of a tiny part of the brain that is responsible for so many fundamental aspects of life.
These poems chart the journeys of sleepless nights when whole lifetimes seem to pass with their stories: loves lost and gained; children and seasons in their phases; and the world beyond, both threatening and enriching life. The time before sleep acts as an invitation to reflect on the world's quieter movements--from gardens heavy after a first storm to the moon slipping into darkness in an eclipse--as well as on the subtle but relentless passage of time. Insomnia embodies Linda Pastan's graceful and iconic voice, both lucid and haunting.
A guide to using the science of the body clock to promote better sleep, better health, and better thinking "Full of surprising and useful facts. . . . Unlike many science books with similar subtitles, it really might 'revolutionise' your life."--James McConnachie, The Times (London) "A comprehensive manifesto for living in harmony with our body clocks, penned by someone who has devoted his career to studying them."--Financial Times Biological clocks are embedded in every aspect of human biology, guiding us toward the prime times of day to sleep, eat, think, and work. Award-winning scientist Russell Foster brings decades of study to this journey through the circadian rhythms that dominate our days and nights. He shows how the realities of 24/7 life--including night-shift work, overbooked calendars, and caring for newborns--disrupt the body clock, taking a toll on sleep and on mental and physical health. By dismantling long-standing myths and citing cutting-edge science, Foster empowers readers to get back into rhythm and live healthier, sharper lives: scheduling meals to prevent obesity and diabetes; timing medications to increase their effectiveness; getting better sleep through exposure to natural light; and much more. "If you want to embrace life," Foster writes, "then embracing biological time will help you do this."
When it comes to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and depression, everything you believe is a lie. With research gleaned from the National Institutes of Health, T.S. Wiley and Bent Formby deliver staggering findings: Americans really are sick from being tired. Diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and depression are rising in our population. We're literally dying for a good night's sleep. Our lifestyle wasn't always this way. It began with the invention of the lightbulb. When we don't get enough sleep in sync with seasonal light exposure, we fundamentally alter a balance of nature that has been programmed into our physiology since day one. This delicate biological rhythm rules the hormones and neurotransmitters that determine appetite, fertility, and mental and physical health. When we rely on artificial light to extend our day until 11 p.m., midnight, and beyond, we fool our bodies into living in a perpetual state of summer. Anticipating the scarce food supply and forced inactivity of winter, our bodies begin storing fat and slowing metabolism to sustain us through the months of hibernation and hunger that never arrive. Our own survival instinct, honed over millennia, is now killing us. Wiley and Formby also reveal: -That studies from our own government research prove the role of sleeplessness in diabetes, heart disease, cancer, infertility, mental illness, and premature aging -Why the carbohydrate-rich diets recommended by many health professionals are not only ridiculously ineffective but deadly -Why the lifesaving information that can turn things around is one of the best-kept secrets of our day. Lights Out is one wake-up call none of us can afford to miss.
Sleep better, live longer with the groundbreaking information and step-by-step program in this revolutionary book. Healthful sleep has been empirically proven to be the single most important factor in predicting longevity, more influential than diet, exercise, or heredity. And yet we are a sleep-sick society, ignorant of the facts of sleep--and the price of sleep deprivation. In this groundbreaking book, based on decades of study on the frontiers of sleep science, Dr. William Dement, founder and director of the Stanford University Sleep Research Center, explains what happens when we sleep, when we don't, and how we can reclaim the most powerful--and underrated--health miracle of all. Taking us on a fascinating tour of our sleeping body and mind, Dr. Dement reveals the price we have paid for ignoring sleep--an epidemic of heart disease, 33 percent of traffic-fatigue-related accidents, and immeasurable mental and psychological disadvantages. And he offers a hands-on prescription for vibrant good health and longevity, including...self-tests to determine how much sleep you really need...the role of prescription and over-the-counter sleeping aids...the latest research on how sleep affects the immune system...how to combat insomnia, snoring, and jet lag...plus information on sleep disorder clinics nationwide, Web sites, and more. Taking readers on a fascinating tour of our sleeping body and mind, Dr. William C. Dement reveals the price paid for ignoring sleep--an epidemic of heart disease, traffic-fatigue-related accidents (responsible for a full third of all traffic accidents), and immeasurable mental and psychological disadvantages. Offering a hands-on prescription for vibrant good health and longevity, THE PROMISE OF SLEEP includes self-tests to determine how much sleep you really need, full information on the role of prescription and over-the-counter sleeping aids, the latest research on how sleep affects the immune system, helpful methods for combating insomnia, snoring, and jet lag, plus information on sleep disorder clinics nationwide, sleep disorder Web sites, and more. -->
In recent years, neuroscientists have uncovered the countless ways our brain trips us up in day-to-day life, from its propensity toward irrational thought to how our intuitions deceive us. The latest research on sleep, however, points in the opposite direction. Where old wives tales have long advised to "sleep on a problem," today scientists are discovering the truth behind these folk sayings, and how the busy brain radically improves our minds through sleep and dreams. In The Secret World of Sleep , neuroscientist Penny Lewis explores the latest research into the nighttime brain to understand the real benefits of sleep. She shows how, while our body rests, the brain practices tasks it learned during the day, replays traumatic events to mollify them, and forges connections between distant concepts. By understanding the roles that the nocturnal brain plays in our waking life, we can improve the relationship between the two, and even boost creativity and become smarter. This is a fascinating exploration of one of the most surprising corners of neuroscience that shows how science may be able to harness the power of sleep to improve learning, health, and more.
Revised and updated for 2003. Although we often take sleep for granted, each of us, at some point in our lives, has had difficulty sleeping. From young children having nightmares to seniors experiencing insomnia, sleep deprivation is a common problem across all ages. In this comprehensive book, Caldwell helps readers understand what makes or breaks a good night's sleep, and offers clear advice on how to achieve better sleep. Sleep discusses: The effects of diet, exercise and sex on sleep patterns The effects of shift work, jet lag and Seasonal Affective Disorder What causes snoring and sleep apnea Sleep disorders in the most vulnerable: children and seniors Drugs and sleep -- what interferes and what helps Treatment of major kinds of sleep disorders The functions of rest, dreams and sleep Complete with up-to-date case studies, diagrams and sidebars, Sleep is your guide to enjoying a healthier mind and body.
Why do we need sleep? How much sleep is enough? What is sleep? What happens when we don't get enough?We spend about a third of our lives asleep - it plays a crucial role in our health and wellbeing. References to sleep abound in literature and art, and sleep has been recognized as fundamental to the human condition for thousands of years. Over the past century, our knowledge of how sleep occurs,what it does, and what happens to our health if we do not have enough has developed hugely. The impact of poor sleep on our quality of life is also gaining recognition and the prevalence of sleep disorders in the population appears to be increasing as we live ever stressful lives.This Very Short Introduction addresses the biological and psychological aspects of sleep, providing a basic understanding of what sleep is and how it is measured, looking at sleep through the human lifespan and the causes and consequences of major sleep disorders. Russell G. Foster and Steven W.Lockley go on to consider the impact of modern society, examining the relationship between sleep and work hours, and the impact of our 24/7 society.
A look at the facts and folklore of sleep that is mainly concerned with the problems of an increasingly sleep-deprived society, and the effects this has on people's work. The author shows, for example, that the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the space shuttle Challenger disaster were associated with people suffering from sleep deprivation. He also looks at some of the more subtle and insidious effects of sleep loss on our physical and mental health.
Preface Acknowledgments 1. Sleeping and Dreaming Rosette's Dream Rosette's First Analysis The Story of Rosette's Mother Rosette's Answer Early Thoughts on Sleep and Dreams Common Notions About Sleep and Dreams Research on Dreams 2. Freud and Dreaming Exploring Dreams Freud's Notions of Dream Function 3. Sleep and Dream Research The Discovery of REM Sleep REM Sleep and Dreaming The Sleep Cycle Dream Time and Real Time 4. Explorations of Dreaming REM and Non-REM Dreaming Dreaming and REM-Sleep Activity 5. Daytime Events, Sleep and Dreaming Studies of Presleep Experience Vagaries of Our Lives 6. Our Bodies, Our Dreams Thirst Exercise Sleeping Pills and Alcohol The Mentrual Cycle Illness 7. Things That Go Bump In The Night Environmental Effects on Dream Content Learning While Asleep 8. Dream Recall and Dream Recall Failure Investigations of Repression Salience Interference Arousal Retrieving Dreams 9. Dream Deprivation REM Deprivation Dream Substitution 10. The Adaptive Function of Dreams Dreams and the Mastery of Stress Dreams and Compensation Dreams and Avoidance Disruption and Avoidance A Summing Up Notes Index
"Why We Sleep is an important and fascinating book...Walker taught me a lot about this basic activity that every person on Earth needs. I suspect his book will do the same for you." --Bill Gates A New York Times bestseller and international sensation, this "stimulating and important book" (Financial Times) is a fascinating dive into the purpose and power of slumber. Sleep is one of the most important but least understood aspects of our life, wellness, and longevity. Until very recently, science had no answer to the question of why we sleep, or what good it served, or why we suffer such devastating health consequences when we don't sleep. Compared to the other basic drives in life--eating, drinking, and reproducing--the purpose of sleep remained elusive. An explosion of scientific discoveries in the last twenty years has shed new light on this fundamental aspect of our lives. Now, preeminent neuroscientist and sleep expert Matthew Walker gives us a new understanding of the vital importance of sleep and dreaming. Within the brain, sleep enriches our ability to learn, memorize, and make logical decisions. It recalibrates our emotions, restocks our immune system, fine-tunes our metabolism, and regulates our appetite. Dreaming mollifies painful memories and creates a virtual reality space in which the brain melds past and present knowledge to inspire creativity. Walker answers important questions about sleep: how do caffeine and alcohol affect sleep? What really happens during REM sleep? Why do our sleep patterns change across a lifetime? How do common sleep aids affect us and can they do long-term damage? Charting cutting-edge scientific breakthroughs, and synthesizing decades of research and clinical practice, Walker explains how we can harness sleep to improve learning, mood, and energy levels; regulate hormones; prevent cancer, Alzheimer's, and diabetes; slow the effects of aging; increase longevity; enhance the education and lifespan of our children, and boost the efficiency, success, and productivity of our businesses. Clear-eyed, fascinating, and accessible, Why We Sleep is a crucial and illuminating book.
Was the Beowulf-poet a Christian or was he a noble pagan whose outlook had been only slightly colored by exposure to Christian thinking? This is but one of the fascinating topics discussed in this anthology of criticism on the early medieval masterpiece. The eighteen contribution to the anthology are arranged chronologically according to the date of the criticism's first publication. The outstanding scholars whose critical writing is presented here range from the turn-of-the-century critic F. A. Blackburn through the Englishman J. R. R. Tolkien to such contemporaries as Kemp Malone, Morton Bloomfield, and R. E. Kaske. Nearly every aspect of the Beowulf is discussed and controverted in terms of literary analysis. Old English, Old Norse, Latin, and Old French passages are translated in the accompanying text as an aid to undergraduate students meeting Beowulf for the first time.
The name "Beowulf" lingers in our collective memory, although today fewer people have heard the tale of the Germanic hero's fight with Grendel, the dreadful Monster of the Mere, as recounted in this Anglo-Saxon epic. This edition of Beowulf makes the poem more accessible than ever before. Ruth Lehmann's imitative translation is the only one available that preserves both the story line of the poem and the alliterative versification of the Anglo-Saxon original. The characteristic features of Anglo-Saxon poetry-- alliterative verse with first-syllable stress, flexible word order, and inflectional endings--have largely disappeared in Modern English, creating special problems for the translator. Indeed, many other translations of Beowulf currently available are either in prose or in some modern poetic form. Dr. Lehmann's translation alone conveys the "feel" of the original, its rhythm and sound, the powerful directness of the Germanic vocabulary. In her introduction, Dr. Lehmann gives a succinct summary of the poem's plot, touching on the important themes of obligation and loyalty, of family feuds, unforgivable crimes, the necessity of revenge, and the internal and external struggles of the Scandinavian tribes. She also describes the translation process in some detail, stating the guiding principles she used and the inevitable compromises that were sometimes necessary.
SANTIAGO GARCIA and DAVID RUBIN unite to bring forward the myth of Beowulf,which has endured for a thousand years, inspired an epic poem, become afoundational piece of English literature, and influenced generations of authors:from J.R.R. Tolkien and Seamus Heaney to a multitude of Hollywoodscreenwriters. BEOWULF tells of the tale of a Scandinavian hero in landsthat would become what is now Denmark and Sweden. A monster, Grendel, hasarrived in the kingdom of the Danes, devouring its men and women for over adecade until Beowulf arrives to save them. GARCIA and RUBIN faithfullyfollow the original story for a new version that is neither revisionist norpostmodern, but captures the tone and important details of the poem, translatingits potent, epic resonance and melancholy into a contemporary comic thatisn't standard swords and sorcery or heroic fantasy fare, but rather anancient story with a modern perspective that remains respectful of the sourcematerial.
Beowulf is the greatest surviving work of literature in Old English, unparalleled in its epic grandeur and scope. It tells the story of the heroic Beowulf and of his battles, first with the monster Grendel, who has laid waste to the great hall of the Danish king Hrothgar, then with Grendel's avenging mother, and finally with a dragon that threatens to devastate his homeland. Through its blend of myth and history, Beowulf vividly evokes a twilight world in which men and supernatural forces live side by side. And it celebrates the endurance of the human spirit in a transient world. "Alexander's translation is marked by a conviction that it is possible to be both ambitious and faithful and ...communicates the poem with a care which goes beyond fidelity-to-meaning and reaches fidelity of implication. May it go on ... to another half-million copies." - Tom Shippey, Bulletin of the International Association of University Professors of English
The finest literary work passed down to us from Anglo-Saxon times, Beowulf celebrates the existence of heroism in a dark world of feuds, violence, and uncertainty. Set in the legendary Scandinavian past, Beowulf comes to the aid of the Danish king Hrothgar by killing the terrifying monster Grendel and its vengeful mother. A lifetime later, Beowulf courageously prepares for another great battle when a fiery dragon threatens his own kingdom. This acclaimed translation contains a critical introduction, a full index of names, and extensive notes. About the Series: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the broadest spectrum of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, voluminous notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.
Volume 3 of The Cambridge History of the First World War explores the social and cultural history of the war and considers the role of civil society throughout the conflict; that is to say those institutions and practices outside the state through which the war effort was waged. Drawing on 25 years of historical scholarship, it sheds new light on culturally significant issues such as how families and medical authorities adapted to the challenges of war and the shift that occurred in gender roles and behaviour that would subsequently reshape society. Adopting a transnational approach, this volume surveys the war's treatment of populations at risk, including refugees, minorities and internees, to show the full extent of the disaster of war and, with it, the stubborn survival of irrational kindness and the generosity of spirit that persisted amidst the bitterness at the heart of warfare, with all its contradictions and enduring legacies.
Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of the First World War offers a history of the war from a predominantly political angle and concerns itself with the story of the state. It explores the multifaceted history of state power and highlights the ways in which different political systems responded to, and were deformed by, the near-unbearable pressures of war. Every state involved faced issues of military-civilian relations, parliamentary reviews of military policy, and the growth of war economies; and yet their particular form and significance varied in every national case. Written by a global team of historical experts, this volume sets new standards in the political history of the waging of war in an authoritative new narrative which addresses problems of logistics, morale, innovation in tactics and weapons systems, the use and abuse of science; all of which were ubiquitous during the conflict.
This first volume of The Cambridge History of the First World War provides a comprehensive account of the war's military history. An international team of leading historians charts how a war made possible by globalization and imperial expansion unfolded into catastrophe, growing year by year in scale and destructive power far beyond that which anyone had anticipated in 1914. Adopting a global perspective, the volume analyses the spatial impact of the war and the subsequent ripple effects that occurred both regionally and across the world. It explores how imperial powers devoted vast reserves of manpower and material to their war efforts and how, by doing so, they changed the political landscape of the world order. It also charts the moral, political and legal implications of the changing character of war and, in particular, the collapse of the distinction between civilian and military targets.
On the occasion of the centenary of World War I in August 2014--an unprecedented, spectacular pictorial history of the first global war in 380 black-and-white photographs, many never seen before, from Imperial War Museums in London. This monumental, dramatic photographic narrative captures the war from the early arms race that developed around the massing of prewar battleship fleets to the final moments of the conflict with the sinking of the German fleet in Scapa. The photographs span the many battlefronts throughout the world: from the British Isles to the south Atlantic, across Europe and the Ottoman Empire, Sudan and East Africa, Jerusalem and Damascus. Here are soldiers from across the globe, vast battleships, dirigibles overhead, the streets of London, the first battle of Ypres, German submarines at sea, the beaches of Gallipoli, the battle of Jutland, the battle of the Somme trenches, and much, much more.
The course of events of the Great War has been told many times, spurred by an endless desire to understand 'the war to end all wars'. However, this book moves beyond military narrative to offer a much fuller analysis of of the conflict's strategic, political, economic, social and cultural impact. Starting with the context and origins of the war, including assasination, misunderstanding and differing national war aims, it then covers the treacherous course of the conflict and its social consequences for both soldiers and civilians, for science and technology, for national politics and for pan-European revolution. The war left a long-term legacy for victors and vanquished alike. It created new frontiers, changed the balance of power and influenced the arts, national memory and political thought. The reach of this acount is global, showing how a conflict among European powers came to involve their colonial empires, and embraced Japan, China, the Ottoman Empire, Latin America and the United States.
A remarkable photographic record of World War One, its relentless progression and the destruction it wrought, as seen from the skies above Flanders Fields Aerial photography was a relatively new technology at the onset of World War I and was embraced as an indispensable tool of wartime intelligence by all nations involved in the conflict. As a result, thousands of photographs taken from the air over the battlefields of the Great War have survived in archives throughout Europe, Australia, and the United States. These pictures present the war from a unique perspective, clearly showing the developing trench system, artillery batteries, bunkers, railway lines, airfields, medical evacuation routes, and more. They reveal the expanding war in Flanders Fields as the hostilities spread, kilometer by kilometer, devastating the environment and resulting in the complete destruction of the landscape at the front. This illuminating volume, the results of a collaboration between the In Flanders Fields Museum, Ypres, the Imperial War Museum, London, and the Royal Army Museum, Brussels, features hundreds of photographic case studies, illustrating in unprecedented detail the physical extent of World War I and the shocking environmental damage it left in its wake. Supplementing aerial images with maps, documents, and photos taken from the ground, this one-of-a-kind visual record stands as an important contribution to World War I history, revealing the wartime landscape of Flanders Fields as rarely seen before. Distributed for Mercatorfonds, in cooperation with the In Flanders Fields Museum, Ypres; the Imperial War Museum, London; and The Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and of Military History, Brussels
Known as the "Great War," World War One was one of history's greatest tragedies. It eventually dragged most of Europe and the world into its bloody quagmire, inflicting more than four years of suffering, misery, maiming, and death on the belligerent nations. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate courses, A History of the Great War: World War One and the International Crisis of the Early Twentieth Century is a brief yet comprehensive study that distinguishes itself from other textbooks in significant ways. Providing broader coverage than most texts, it discusses the phenomenon of the war in its chronological entirety. Author Eric Dorn Brose analyzes the forces that generated international tension and made wars more prevalent before 1914; the causes and course of the Great War to 1918; and the violent and problematic aftermath of the struggle to 1926. Rather than focusing exclusively on military developments, Brose also examines the war's underlying causes, its political and diplomatic dimensions, and its myriad consequences. Explicitly global in scope, A History of the Great War offers a more extensive look at the worldwide side of the Great War than existing texts do, including coverage of the campaigns spanning Northeast Africa, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Central Asia, India, and the war at sea. In addition, the author incorporates and discusses recent groundbreaking research in the "Notes" section of each chapter, so that students can easily access it. The text is also enhanced by maps, photos, and an engaging vignette at the opening of each chapter that serves as an introduction.
"In a hole in the ground, there lived a hobbit." So begins one of the most beloved and delightful tales in the English language. Set in the imaginary world of Middle-earth, at once a classic myth and a modern fairy tale, J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is one of literature's most enduring and well-loved novels. Presented here in the standard hardcover edition using the author's original jacket design. Bilbo Baggins is a hobbit who enjoys a comfortable, unambitious life, rarely traveling any farther than his pantry or cellar. But his contentment is disturbed when the wizard Gandalf and a company of dwarves arrive on his doorstep one day to whisk him away on an adventure. They have launched a plot to raid the treasure hoard guarded by Smaug the Magnificent, a large and very dangerous dragon. Bilbo reluctantly joins their quest, unaware that on his journey to the Lonely Mountain he will encounter both a magic ring and a frightening creature known as Gollum. Written for Tolkien's own children, The Hobbit has sold many millions of copies worldwide and established itself as a modern classic.
The Lord of the Rings trilogy has delighted millions of fans worldwide in book and movie form. With the theatrical release of the two-part film The Hobbit slated for 2012 and 2013, attention will once again turn to J. R. R. Tolkien's classic works. In a culture where truth is relative and morality is viewed as old-fashioned, we welcome the chance to view the world through hobbit eyes: we have free will, our choices matter, and living a morally heroic life is possible. In this engaging and thought-provoking book, Tolkien expert Matthew Dickerson shows how a Christian worldview and Christian themes undergird Tolkien's Middle-earth writings and how they are fundamentally important to understanding his vision. This revised and expanded edition of Following Gandalf includes new material on torture, social justice, and the importance of the body.
Long before the successful The Lord of the Rings films, J.R.R. Tolkien's creations, imagination, and characters had captured the attention of millions of readers. But who was the man who dreamt up the intricate languages and perfectly crafted world of Middle-earth? Tolkien had a difficult life, for many years: orphaned and poor, his guardian forbad him to communicate with the woman he had fallen in love with, and he went through the horrors of the First World War. An intensely private and brilliant scholar, he spent over fifty years working on the languages, history, peoples and geography of Middle-earth, with a consistent mythology and body of legends inspired by a formidable knowledge of early northern European history and culture. J.R.R. Tolkien became a legend by creating an imaginary world that has enthralled and delighted generations. This delightful and accessible biography brings him to life. Colin Duriez has appeared as a commentator on DVDs of Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings, and BBC television's The Worlds of Fantasy. He is also the author of The Inklings Handbook (with the late David Porter), J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis: The Story of Their Friendship, and Tolkien and The Lord of the Rings, and has contributed to definitive reference works, The Tolkien Encyclopedia and a number of other tomes relating to Tolkien.
Here is an in-depth look at the role myth, mortality, and religion play in J. R. R. Tolkien's works such as The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion -- including Tolkien's private letters and revealing opinions of his own work. Richard L. Purtill brilliantly argues that Tolkien's extraordinary ability to touch his readers' lives through his storytelling -- so unlike much modern literature -- accounts for his enormous literary success. This book demonstrates the moral depth in Tolkien's work and cuts through current subjectivism and cynicism about morality. A careful reader will find a subtle religious dimension to Tolkien's work -- all the more potent because it is below the surface. Purtill reveals that the author's fantasy stories creatively incorporate profound religious and ethical ideas. For example, Purtill shows us how hobbits reflect both the pettiness of unimaginative parochial humanity and the unexpected heroism of ordinary people in crisis. Purtill effectively addresses larger issues of the place of myth, the relation of religion and morality to literature, the relation of Tolkien's work to traditional mythology, modern fantasy and science fiction, and the lessons Tolkien's work teaches that are applicable to our own lives. Book jacket.
The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún is a previously unpublished work by J.R.R. Tolkien, written while Tolkien was Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford during the 1920s and '30s, before he wrote The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. It makes available for the first time Tolkien's extensive retelling in English narrative verse of the epic Norse tales of Sigurd the Völsung and The Fall of the Niflungs.It includes an introduction by J.R.R. Tolkien, drawn from one of his own lectures on Norse literature, with commentary and notes on the poems by Christopher Tolkien.
The Lord of the Rings is intended to be applicable to the real world of relationships, religion, pleasure, pain, and politics. Tolkien himself said that his grand tale of wizards, orcs, hobbits, and elves was aimed at truth and good morals in the actual world. Analysis of the popular appeal of The Lord of the Rings (on websites and elsewhere) shows that Tolkien fans are hungry for discussion of the urgent moral and cosmological issues arising out of this fantastic epic story. Can political power be wielded for good, or must it always corrupt? Does technology destroy the truly human? Is it morally wrong to give up hope? Can we find meaning in chance events? In The Lord of the Rings and Philosophy, seventeen young philosophy professors, all of them ardent Tolkien fans and most of them contributors to the four earlier volumes in the Popular Culture and Philosophy series, address some of these important issues and show how clues to their solutions may be found in the imaginary world of Middle-earth. The book is divided into five sections, concerned with Power and the Ring, the Quest for Happiness, Good and Evil in Middle-earth, Time and Mortality, and the Relevance
Education is a fundamental human right, yet much of the world's population lives with poor literacy. Due to rapidly growing technology and internet usage, open educational resources (OER) are increasingly being used to help transcend barriers to literacy while also aiding in educational attainment. With tremendous developments in ICTs, the education system of today has been enriched by various OERs. The optimal utilization of opportunities provided by the technological developments presents a profound challenge for education systems and has serious implications involving cost, access, equity, pedagogy, and quality. Challenges and Opportunities of Open Educational Resources Management is an essential research publication that explores access to information and societal and economic hurdles that contribute to informational inaccessibility. Highlighting topics such as e-resources, digital libraries, and information management, this book is ideal for librarians, academicians, computer scientists, researchers, policymakers, and students. Moreover, the book will provide insights and support executives concerned with the management of expertise, knowledge, information, and organizational development in different types of work communities and environments.
Institutions of higher learning are providing access to free and low-cost open resources to support students with prior college-level learning during every step of their educational journey. This unconventional approach to education removes traditional barriers to college credit by placing learners in an open environment, which encourages accessibility to higher education and fosters independent and critical thinking. By providing learners with free resources, more learners have the resources needed to be successful in college. Prior learning assessment is an excellent way for students to demonstrate the skills and knowledge gained throughout the course of their lives. By developing a portfolio of artifacts that support prior learning outside of the classroom, learners reduce the time and money needed to complete a degree. Open educational resources, prior learning assessment, and competency-based learning offer the potential to provide access to higher education to those who may not have the opportunity to earn a college degree. As the costs of higher education continue to rise, these flexible, open approaches to learning can bridge the equity gap and provide more opportunity to earn a college degree. Enhancing Higher Education Accessibility Through Open Education and Prior Learning provides a comprehensive resource book on open resources and prior learning in order to provide access and equity to higher education. The chapters pull together resources and case studies that exemplify alternative means to higher education. Highlighted topics within this book include remote e-learning, online fundraising, smart learning and assessments, effective learning, and faculty mentorship. This book is essential for curriculum designers; administrators; policymakers; government executives; professors and instructors in higher education; students; researchers in adult education, competency-based education, social justice, and open educational resources; and practitioners interested in open educational resources and accessibility in higher education.
What does it take to become a digitally agile scholar? This manual explains how academics can comfortably navigate the digital world of today and tomorrow. It foregrounds three key domains of digital agility: getting involved in research, education and (community) service, mobilising (digital) skills on various levels, and acting in multiple roles, both individually and interlinked with others. After an introduction that outlines the foundations of the three-dimensional framework, the chapters focus on different roles and skills associated with evolving as a digital scholar. There is the author, who writes highly specialised texts for expert peers; the storyteller, who crafts accessible narratives to a broader audience in the form of blogs or podcasts; the creator, who uses graphics, audio, and video to motivate audiences to delve deeper into the material; the integrator, who develops and curates multimedia artefacts, disseminating them through channels such as websites, webinars, and open source repositories; and finally the networker, who actively triggers interaction via social media applications and online learning communities. Additionally, the final chapters offer a blueprint for the future digital scholar as a professional learner and as a "change agent" who is open to and actively pursues innovation. Informed by the authors' broad and diverse personal experience, Evolving as a Digital Scholar offers insight, inspiration, and practical advice. It equips a broad readership with the skills and the mindset to harness new digital developments and navigate the ever-evolving digital age. It will inspire academic teachers and researchers with different backgrounds and levels of knowledge that wish to enhance their digital academic profile. Free ebook available at OAPEN Library, JSTOR and Project Muse
In an information and knowledge society, access to information and knowledge is a basic human right, making equitable and fair access to information and knowledge paramount. Open Access (OA) plays a huge role in addressing inequities as well as broad-based and inclusive scientific progress. On the surface, the number of publications discussing OA issues from various angles are on the rise. However, what is missing is a comprehensive assessment of the extent of OA implementation and a discussion of how to proceed in integrating OA issues from various perspectives. The Handbook of Research on the Global View of Open Access and Scholarly Communications articulates OA concepts and issues while demystifying the state-of-the-art knowledge domain in the areas of OA and scholarly communications from diverse perspectives as well as implications for the information and knowledge society. Covering topics such as ethics, copyright challenges, and open access initiatives, this book is a dynamic resource for publishers, librarians, higher education administrators, policymakers, students and educators of higher education, researchers, and academicians.
This volume takes a comprehensive and broad look at e-text programs across a wide spectrum of programs, institutions, and policies in three parts. The first part showcases several policy papers to contextualize the discussion and highlight the reasons for IAE programs' structure and the obstacles they face for implementation. The second part is an in-depth exploration of various case studies that provide a detailed description of IAE programs, including information about program elements, program structure, program size, and insights into how programs are operationalized, and their shortcomings and benefits to students and stakeholders. The final part is a selection of research papers that offer evidence-based support for the adoption of IAE programs in terms of student success, access, engagement, costs, and a variety of other student and institutional outcomes. There are approximately 300 institutions of higher education that currently have some form of Inclusive Access or Open Educational Resources E-text (IAE) program in the United States, but there is little scholarship that engages on the topic of assessing these programs' effect on student success. The results of the research studies included in this volume will inform faculty, administrators, and policy-makers who seek to support the development, adoption, and implementation of IAE programs based on their potential positive effects on student success and other outcomes.
This book covers a broad range of innovations in education, such as flipped classrooms, the educational use of social media, mobile learning, educational resources and massive open online courses, as well as theoretical discussions and practical applications in the use of augmented reality and educational technology to improve student engagement and pave the way for students' future studies and careers. The case studies and practical applications presented here illustrate the effectiveness of new modes of education in which the latest technologies and innovations are widely used in the global context. Accordingly, the book can help develop readers' awareness of the potential these innovations hold, thus expanding their expertise and stimulating critical thinking as to how new technologies have made learning and teaching easier in various educational settings.
A Choice Outstanding Academic Title for 2014! Sponsored by the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), this one-of-a-kind book demonstrates the best tools, resources, and techniques for discovering, selecting, and integrating interactive open educational resources (OERs) into the teaching and learning process. The author examines many of the best repositories and digital library websites for finding high quality materials, explaining in depth the best practices for effectively searching these repositories and the various methods for evaluating, selecting, and integrating the resources into the instructor's curriculum and course assignments, as well as the institution's learning management system.
Universal access to high-quality education plays an important role in the building of peace, sustainable social and economic development, and intercultural dialogue. Providing research on the quality and understanding of open education allows for successful learning strategies and educational sustainability. Metasystems Learning Design of Open Textbooks: Emerging Research and Opportunities is an essential reference source that discusses the role of open education in improving the quality of education, as well as facilitating policy dialogue, knowledge sharing, and capacity building. Featuring research on topics such as design theory, competence development, and adaptive learning, this book is ideally designed for educators, academicians, education administrators, curriculum developers, and researchers seeking coverage on the functional models of open education and the diversity of open educational resources.
Access to learning materials has been an issue within education that has had a profound impact on student outcomes and equality among students. New strategies for promoting more equal access to these materials began within institutions of higher learning and can be adapted at lower levels to facilitate equity within educational systems. Open Educational Resources (OER) Pedagogy and Practices is a comprehensive research publication that explores open access to educational materials and its impact on educational cost, educational equity, and poverty. Featuring a range of topics such as instructional design, pedagogy, and gamification, this book is essential for teachers, curriculum developers, instructional designers, principals, school boards, educational professionals, academicians, professors, administrators, educational policymakers, researchers, and educational agencies.
Principles of Managerial Accounting: A Video eText is an innovative video textbook that is intended to be watched as much as it is read. Users learn fundamental managerial accounting principles by reading about the concepts in the text immediately followed by watching short videos where the concepts are applied in demonstration problems. Each chapter contains detailed written explanations of fundamental managerial accounting concepts such as cost behavior, job costing, cost classifications, cost volume profit analysis, incremental decision making, budgeting, and variance analysis. Video Illustrations are embedded within the written text to actively demonstrate the accounting concepts. Each chapter is concluded with a series of comprehensive Practice Video Problems in which the concepts are applied to unique business situations.
This video eText is particularly suited for distance education courses, hybrid courses, personal interest self-study, or any other circumstance in which users don’t receive the educational benefits from traditional, in-person lectures.