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Nationwide protests have reignited calls for police reform at the University of Cincinnati (UC), forcing university officials to once again confront the institution's history of racially-biased and, at times, lethal policing.
The Office of Safety and Reform was created in 2015 following the officer-involved shooting of Samuel DuBose. Dr. Robin S. Engel, PhD, renowned criminal justice researcher, led the office as the Vice President of Safety and Reform. Dr. Engel was responsible for the Department of Public Safety and the reform efforts of the UC Police Division until the end of December 2018.
University Police Officer Shoots and Kills Non-University-Affiliated Motorist During Off-Campus Traffic Stop. Ohio not only permits private and public colleges and universities to “appoint” or “designate” campus police officers, but also vests those officers with full law enforcement power
Everette Howard, an 18-year-old southwest Ohio student, was finishing up his last summer class at University of Cincinnati's Upward Bound program when he died after a campus police officer used a taser on him early Sunday morning.
How did we get here? There are two narratives of how U.S. policing developed. Both are true. The more commonly known history—the one most college students will hear about in an Introduction to Criminal Justice course—is that American policing can trace its roots back to English policing. Policing in southern slave-holding states followed a different trajectory—one that has roots in slave patrols of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and police enforcement of Jim Crow laws in the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries.
collected data on over 1,100 killings by police in 2020. Compiling information from media reports, obituaries, public records, and databases like Fatal Encounters and the WashingtonPost, this report represents the most comprehensive accounting of deadly police violence in 2020. Our analysis suggests the majority of killings by police in 2020 could have been prevented and that specific policies and practices might prevent police killings in the future.
The Marshall Project is a nonpartisan, nonprofit news organization that seeks to create and sustain a sense of national urgency about the U.S. criminal justice system. We have an impact on the system through journalism, rendering it more fair, effective, transparent and humane.
In the United States, racialized people are disproportionately selected for punishment. Examining punishment discourses intersectionality unearths profound, unequal distinctions when controlling for the variety of victims’ identities within the punishment regime
When one thinks about policing in early America, there are a few images that may come to mind: A county sheriff enforcing a debt between neighbors, a constable serving an arrest warrant on horseback, or a lone night watchman carrying a lantern through his sleeping town. These organized practices were adapted to the colonies from England and formed the foundations of American law enforcement. However, there is another significant origin of American policing that we cannot forget—and that is slave patrols.(National Law Enforcement Memorial and Museum)
According to historians and other scholars, the problem is embedded in the story of the nation and its culture. Rooted in slavery, racial disparities in policing and police violence, they say, are sustained by systemic exclusion and discrimination, and fueled by implicit and explicit bias. Any solution clearly will require myriad new approaches to law enforcement, courts, and community involvement, and comprehensive social change driven from the bottom up and the top down.
In light of the Black Lives Matter movement and protests in many cities, race plays an ever more salient role in crime and justice. Within theoretical criminology, however, race has oddly remained on the periphery.
Heather Schoenfeld illustrates how the unfinished task of full equality for African Americans led to a series of policy choices that expanded the government's power to punish, even as they were designed to protect individuals from arbitrary state violence. Examining civil rights protests, prison condition lawsuits, sentencing reforms, the War on Drugs, and the rise of conservative Tea Party politics, Schoenfeld explains why politicians veered from skepticism of prisons to an embrace of incarceration as the appropriate response to crime. To reduce the number of people behind bars, Schoenfeld argues that we must transform the political incentives for imprisonment and develop a new ideological basis for punishment.
Camera Power is the first book to tackle the policy questions raised by two ongoing revolutions in recording the police: copwatching and police-worn body cameras. Drawing on original research from over 200 jurisdictions and more than 100 interviews - with police leaders and officers, copwatchers, community members, civil rights and civil liberties experts, industry leaders, and technologists - Mary D. Fan offers a vision of the great potential and perils of the growing deluge of audiovisual big data. In contrast to the customary portrayal of big data mining as a threat to civil liberties, Camera Power describes how audiovisual big data analytics can better protect civil rights and liberties and prevent violence in police encounters. With compelling stories and coverage of the most important debates over privacy, public disclosure, proof, and police regulation, this book should be read by anyone interested in how technology is reshaping the relationship with our police.
This encyclopedia covers issues in both historical and contemporary context, with information on race and ethnicity and their impact on crime and the administration of justice. Through entries in this encyclopedia, readers will gain a greater appreciation for the similar historical experiences of varied racial and ethnic groups and will see how race and ethnicity has mattered and continues to matter in the administration of American criminal justice.
Ferguson by Tim SuerethIt's difficult to truly understand Ferguson, Missouri, the Michael Brown shooting, or present-day race relations in America without first getting a grasp on the historical events that preceded the 2014 riots. Events, attitudes, and practices from several centuries ago put the United States on the path to becoming a nation of two societies--one black, one white--separate and unequal. "Ferguson: Americas Breaking Point" begins where slavery in America "officially" ended--after the Civil War. Tim Suereth explores the pivotal events that led the United States into continuing strife between its own people, and describes the circumstances which caused the Ferguson race riots. He also speculates about what the repercussions will be for other racially-divided cities across the country, and for law enforcement organizations everywhere. "Ferguson: Americas Breaking Point" ends in Ferguson, a small suburb of St. Louis, Missouri, that became the epicenter of the fight for civil rights in the 21st century. The book describes the details of the Michael Brown shooting, and aftermath, in a daily timeline of memorable moments, by Darren Wilson, the Brown family, law enforcement, the Federal Government, activists, anarchists and the judicial system. Racial rioting will continue in America until policymakers heed the advice of the 1968 Presidential Commission on Civil Disorders, which concluded that the deepening racial division among the races can be reversed if swift action is taken, but warned: "If we are heedless, none of us shall escape the consequences." American politicians have been heedless, and Ferguson was the consequence. Read "Ferguson: America's Breaking Point" to learn the startling and worrisome details.
Fight the Power examines the explosive history of police brutality in New York City and the black community's long struggle to resist it. Taylor brings this story to life by exploring the institutions and the people that waged campaigns to end the mistreatment of people of color at the hands of the police, including the black church, the black press, black communists and civil rights activists.
A timely examination of the ways Black women, Indigenous women, and other women of color are uniquely affected by racial profiling, police brutality,and immigration enforcement. Invisible No More is a timely examination of how Black women, Indigenous women, and women of color experience racial profiling, police brutality, and immigration enforcement.
The founder of the Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery, Alabama recounts his experiences as a lawyer working to assist those desperately in need, reflecting on his pursuit of the ideal of compassion in American justice
Despite the triumphant dismantling of the Jim Crow Laws, the system that once forced African Americans into a segregated second-class citizenship still haunts America, the US criminal justice system still unfairly targets black men and an entire segment of the population is deprived of their basic rights. Outside of prisons, a web of laws and regulations discriminates against these wrongly convicted ex-offenders in voting, housing, employment and education. Alexander here offers an urgent call for justice.
How policing became the major political issue of our time. Combining firsthand accounts from activists with the research of scholars and reflections from artists, Policing the Planet traces the global spread of the broken-windows policing strategy, first established in New York City under Police Commissioner William Bratton. It's a doctrine that has vastly broadened police power the world over--to deadly effect.
What is the reality of policing in the United States? Do the police keep anyone safe and secure other than the very wealthy? How do recent police killings of young black people in the United States fit into the historical and global context of anti-blackness? This collection of reports and essays explores police violence against black, brown, indigenous and other marginalized communities, miscarriages of justice, and failures of token accountability and reform measures.